Setting Up OpenDNS for Home Content Filtering

I’ve talked at great length about using OpenDNS to filter in the cloud. You’re dying to know more, I can tell. Here you go. But first, the theory.

How Open DNS works

I’m sure you read my blog, right? Surely, you already know this!? Don’t call me Shirley.

At the very least, you should understand what DNS is. A good primer is here:

https://pookyandthegeek.com/2013/10/16/dns-wizardry-for-muggles/

Yeah I’ve resorted to a shameless plug for my own blog.

First, the cliff notes. I know a guy named Cliff, he’s a swell guy. And he’d approve of these notes.cliffsnotes

1. To connect to the Internet, your computer uses an IP Address, not a website address (or for the more technical of you, the DNS name).

2. To translate a website address like starwars.com to its IP Address 199.181.132.250, your computer uses DNS.

3. To see DNS in action on a Windows PC, click the start button, then type CMD and press enter. This opens a command prompt.

commandprompt

4. From within the command prompt, send some ICMP Packets (think of it like tossing a ping pong ball at something to see if it responds) to a website. You can do this by typing PING, followed by the name of the website. For example, in my screen shot, I’m pinging starwars.com by typing PING STARWARS.COM followed by pressing enter on the keyboard. Watch the magic.

pinged

Your computer uses DNS to determine that at this point in time, Starwars.com can bestormtroopers reached at the IP Address of 199.181.132.250. Yeah, with a Star Wars marathon going on right now on the TNT channel, I’m kind of biased here. Sorry.

So your computer now knows that if it wants to go to Starwars.com, behind the scenes it connects to that IP Address and botta bing. Stormtroopers.

 

That’s the magic of DNS. There are many DNS servers in use throughout the Internet. Typically, our Internet Service Provider assigns one to us and we don’t even know it’s there. But because we’re uber l33t, we want to have our computer use OpenDNS servers so the folks at OpenDNS can do some content filtering for us. How? Let me explain. Once again, cliff notes.hulk-computer

  1. The Incredible Hulk wants to purchase illegal performance enhancing green drugs off the Internet and roid out while playing virtual poker on an online gambling site. Captain America is aware of this terrible behavior taking place from the Avengers base, and as the network guy, decides to block him.
  2. He sets up an OpenDNS account and blocks the category for Drugs and Gambling.
  3. Hulk tries to access a gambling site. He types in the website name and attempts to connect.
  4. The computer connects to an OpenDNS server to translate the website name to an IP Address.
  5. The OpenDNS server sees the request coming from the Avengers base, and recognizes that traffic coming from that network shouldn’t be accessing a gambling site, based on the OpenDNS category block settings.
  6. The OpenDNS server sends Hulk an IP Address to an OpenDNS block page, instead of the gambling page.
  7. An OpenDNS block page appears in Hulk’s web browser.
  8. Hulk realizes he shouldn’t gamble, and decides to change his wayward ways. No more smash.

So now that you understand the high level, let’s get more specific.

Take note that there are a lot of numbered lists in this blog. That means I’m serious here.

I’m stepping on the toes of the setup guide OpenDNS provides, which is actually quite good. Their directions, which are much more better than mine, is here: https://support.opendns.com/entries/53936430-Configuring-OpenDNS-on-your-Network

  1. Go to https://www.opendns.com/home-internet-security/ and Sign Up for a free Personal account.
  2. captainYou’ll have to provide, at the very least, a valid email address. I highly recommend creating a generic email account for all your Spam-related sign up stuff. For example, if your normal email address is America@gmail.com, consider creating a new account called Captain.Spam.America@gmail.com and only use this account for signing up for junk on the Internet. You know, deep down, that they will send you tons of junk emails if you sign up for stuff.
  3. Log into your newly created account, and set up a network to monitor. For our sample Captain America, he wants to block the Hulk from purchasing illegal performance enhancing drugs at the Avengers base. With that goal in mind, he creates a network called TheAvengersBase.
  4. Enter the settings for your network, and you can set up your categories for Web Content Filtering.
  5. blockdrugsCaptain checks off Drugs and Gambling. The Hulk better behave now. Making and saving the changes generally takes a few minutes to take effect.
  6. Download the OpenDNS updater client. This needs to run on a computer inside your home all the time, so OpenDNS knows who you are and where you’re coming from when on the Internet. Download it here: https://support.opendns.com/entries/23282614-Where-do-I-download-an-OpenDNS-Dynamic-IP-updater-client-
  7. updaterInstall and run the updater client. It will ask you for your OpenDNS login credentials.
  8. Once you have it set up, it will periodically check in with the OpenDNS servers to make sure they know who you are, and where you are coming from.
  9. Configure your computer to use the OpenDNS servers of 208.67.222.123 and 208.67.220.123. There are several ways to do this – either on a single computer by tweaking its IP Address settings, or (better yet) by tweaking the DHCP options on your router for every computer that connects to your house and wants to hit the Internet.routerdnssettings
  10. Remember my blog post on taming your router with style and grace? Of course you do. https://pookyandthegeek.com/2013/12/01/taming-your-router-with-style-and-grace/
  11. For my home DHCP server, I forced it to use the OpenDNS servers. Now everyone who connects to my network or wireless goes through OpenDNS.
  12. Test everything to make sure it works.

An added step that OpenDNS doesn’t think about is you may want to create an Access List on your router to only allow access to the OpenDNS servers and block all other DNS traffic. This is called egress filtering (a big twelve dollar word) and prevents the Hulk from sneakily modifying his DNS Server settings to try and get around OpenDNS. Boom. Hulk smashed. Egress filtering is a topic for another post, as I haven’t done it justice at all. This basic approach above will keep most users at bay.

Something doesn’t work? Ping me. I’m here to help.

The Pokemon Go Blog, Part One

Today I’m going to talk about the latest gaming phenomenon called Pokemon Go. Chances are you just returned from your month-long vacation on the not-planet Pluto and haven’t noticed people of all ages, sizes, shapes and colors walking around like mindless zombies, drooling on themselves as they hold their cell phones out in front of them. Those are common side effects from Pokemon Go Syndrome (PGS), a potentially fatal illness sweeping the planet. Meandering mindless miscreants, holding their phones out in front of their faces, shall henceforth be called Pokemon Go Zombies (PGZ). PokemonGoZombieConsider this blog your immunization against the sickness. I guarantee this blog won’t cause Autism or contain tiny microchips supplied by the shady and top secret Government tracking program. I’ll cover the history of Pokemon, what the game is about, and then turn it about in my hand like a multifaceted Charizard, covering many of the related features of the game. This will touch on technology, information security, psychology, physical security, exercise, and cultural gaming trends. That’s a lot to pack into one blog, so this is Part One of the series, until I’ve milked the proverbial Pokemon of all its Go. Corny puns and frequent use of the word “squirtle” and “charizard” are forthcoming, mainly because I just like to say them. You have been warned.smock

The History of Pokemon

Pokemon, the merging together of the words Pocket and Monster, was introduced on February 27, 1996 on the Nintendo Game Boy system. The goal of the game was to catch, train and trade creatures to become a Pokemon Master. The first few games led to the release of Pokemon trading cards, which led to a very fast rise in popularity. This, in turn, led to an anime series, manga book series, toys, more games, more toys, more cards, large creepy marching stuffed yellow animals, a healthy dose of more toys and cards and games and movies, and then… Pokemon Go.

ashcanThough I didn’t participate or collect or even care, I vividly remember back in the day the
huge rise in popularity of the card game. There was a resultant wave of anti-Pokemon sentiment from parents, teachers and the church who didn’t understand the popularity, and who mostly likely forgot those fad crazes from their childhood. I remember pestering my Dad to drive me 45 minutes to Hughesville, PA because they received a new shipment of Garbage Pail Kids. I also remember mob scenes as soccer moms fought each other over M.U.S.C.L.E. wrestlers, Cabbage Patch Kids, Tickle Me Elmo, Beanie Babies and Harry Potter books.

As a historical note, I also remember the backlash from churches against Cabbage Patch Kids, Pokemon Cards and Harry Potter. They were all from the devil, right? There is an age old church story of a pagan witch doctor who became a converted Christian, and was presented with a <Cabbage Patch Kid, Pokemon Card, Christian Rock album, Harry Potter book, etc.>. In every story, the converted pagan frantically exclaimed that this object was used in their own pagan rituals! Oh no! The story has conveniently been recycled throughout the years to cover the latest fad or trend of society. Because it is completely unverifiable, and includes an authoritative source (the converted pagan witch doctor), it is of course believed and circulated. But I’m getting ahead of myself here – first, let’s cover what Pokemon Go is, and some of the various aspects of it, before we head into the territory of making any sort of value judgement.

What is Pokemon Go?pokemon-go-vector-logo

Pokemon Go is the latest Pokemon game to hit the swarming masses. It was created by the California game making company Niantic, who creatively combined the real world of Google Maps with an imaginary virtual overlay realm of Pokemon creatures. As Niantic is owned by Google, it’s the perfect strawberry jam to Google’s monstrous peanut butter sandwich. The game is free to download on your mobile phone (either Android or iPhone). The interface is a colorful dumbed down rendition of Google Maps, where occasional Pokemon creatures randomly appear for you to capture. To capture a Pokemon, you must toss a Pokeball at the creature, much in the same way you would toss a ball to knock down bottles in a carnival game. Once captured, the monsters are yours to level up, evolve, power up, and send into battle against other owners’ monsters. This epic battle takes place in Pokemon gyms, which appear on the map as landmarks pulled from Google Maps. There are also Pokestops where you can periodically get free stuff, which are also landmarks found on Google Maps. These gyms and stops are typically Churches, restaurants, historical landmarks, post offices, art statues, and so on.

You gain experience points and loot by capturing Pokemon, visiting Pokestops, and winning battles against other trainers’ Pokemons. As you level up, you are able to capture more powerful Pokemon, and use more powerful loot. This loot can also be purchased with coins which can, naturally, be purchased with real world money. Thus far, about 50% of Pokemon Go players are dumping real world cash to buy loot. pikachu dollarAnd thus far, Pokemon Go is raking in between 1 and 2 million dollars a day, which is remarkable for a free game. Companies are lining up to bow before this new golden cash cow, with McDonalds leading the way to request that its restaurants become Pokestops for weary trainers. Oh and while you are there, you can drop some cash for a Pokemon Go Happy Meal toy. Because who doesn’t want a little plastic Pikachu toy? Another method to acquire Pokemon is to hatch an egg in an incubator. To hatch an egg, you of course need to acquire an egg, and deposit it inside an acquired incubator (one is provided to everyone at the start of the game with infinite uses). Once an egg is inside an incubator, you need to Go. That is, you need to move a certain distance (as measured on the map) for the egg to hatch. There are 2k, 5k and 10k eggs. The higher the distance the egg requires to hatch, the more likely it will hatch a rare Pokemon. You can acquire additional incubators as drops or by dropping cash, so at any given time you could be walking your way towards hatching a Pokemon army. Now I hear you chuckling to yourself. Sure, you’ll just jump in the rusted out car and drive around and around to hatch those eggs, right? Not so fast. No, really. Not so fast – if you go faster than 20mph, it stops clocking towards your eggs. It wants to force you to get exercise by walking or biking or roller skating or piggy backing or driving really, really slow. That’s why it’s called Pokemon Go (emphasis on Go).

poke soupThere are lots of other odds and ends tossed in there, such as leveling up your monsters, their attack strength, their life points, healing potions and crystals to heal your Pokemon if they get injured in gym battles. There are lures and bait that can cause Pokemon to come to you, whereas normally you have to use the in-game radar to find the Pokemon. There is lots to this game, and Niantic provided very little documentation or helpful information to explain what on earth you are supposed to actually do. Viva la Internet, there are countless web pages and blog posts that give you tips and tricks. Hey – you’re reading one right now.

So that’s the high level overview of Pokemon Go. All of the myriad pieces and parts are ingredients in a giant pot of addictive soup – and people are lining up in droves to ingest this soup. Their tag line is pretty accurate – Gotta Catch Them All! No, I mean it – you GOT TO catch them all. You are powerless to resist.

Coming up next: Hey! Now my kids are getting exercise!

My Husband Told Me So (An  original  verse of wisdom by Pooky)

 

Once upon a time my facebook feed was filled with many

Pretty pics of family and witty memes aplenty.

But then I shared a point of view that set my friends afire;

I hardly could conceive the controversy that transpired.

I labored to explain my thoughts and never to offend.

Alas, a few could not decipher what my heart intended.

No matter how I spelled it out, expounded, clarified,

They only heard a hate-filled  bigot shouting, “Crucify!”

So now I must resign myself to gaining their reproval,

A bitter pill to swallow, losing their approval.

But wiser now I come to thee with insight to allot:

‘Tis better  to reflect alone than share your inner thought

If frenemies you do not wish to make along the way,

For frenemies are destined if conviction you display.

“What on earth is Minecraft, and why is it so popular?”: Minecraft in a Nutshell

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Stuffed AnimalsIn the past few years, the game Minecraft has become wildly popular. You can walk into just about any mall and find at least one Minecraft graphic t-shirt or stuffed animal (usually way overpriced). According to the Minecraft website, over ten million people all around the world have bought the game. There are Minecraft YouTube channels, Minecraft player guides, Minecraft wikis, Minecraft conventions, Minecraft servers, and more. Most kids (and many adults) have played Minecraft at least once. However, there are still many people who have no idea what Minecraft is and what all the fuss is about. It is for their sake that I am going to attempt to explain what the game is.  

Note: The purpose of this post is to give a basic overview of Minecraft to those who have no idea what it is. Keyword: basic. I am not going to get into every little detail about the game (like crafting recipes, potion-making, horse taming, farming, bosses, villagers, the most efficient way to kill the ender dragon, etc.). I apologize to everyone who was expecting an extensive player guide.  

On Notch, alternate dimensions, and guys named Steve

WorldMinecraft was created in 2009 by two programmers known to the Minecraft community as Jeb and Notch. They believed that it would only be a small success and planned to use the money earned by the game to make new games. However, Minecraft became infinitely more popular than they had expected, so they set up a video-game company and continued selling it.   In Minecraft, you play as a man named “Steve” who exists in an alternate dimension where the world is composed of all different kinds and textures of 3D pixelated blocks. In this world, time is divided into ten-minute-long “days” and “nights”. You can dig up the blocks and build with them. After a while, you can create massive structures, tools, and items that make playing the game easier.

 

Here are some examples of things that I have built in the game:

SurvivalBuilding ModernBuilding 2014-07-10_19.27.35

There are two main ways that you can play the game, or “gamemodes”: survival and creative.  

Five-second Explanation of Survival Mode

In survival, your goal is to… well, survive. You have a specific amount of health, and when your health runs out, you die. You also need food to survive, which you can get from killing animals. At night, monsters come out and try to kill you, which makes the game more difficult.  

Five-second Explanation of Creative Mode

In creative, you don’t have to worry about surviving because you’re invincible. You can also fly. In this gamemode, you have an unlimited number of every kind of block in the game, so you can build anything you want without having to dig up the blocks first.  

Even More Useful-ish Information

Now obviously, the game is much more complicated than the explanation I gave. Remember, this is just a basic overview. However, there are some “details” that might be nice to know.  

What is that?Creeper

That is a monster in the game known as a “creeper”. It has become one of the most recognizable things in Minecraft (I’m not entirely sure why).  

 

 

GrassblockHow about that?

That is a block of dirt (a 3D block with the texture of dirt). The green stuff on top of it is grass. It is also a famous symbol of Minecraft.  

 

 

 

Why is Minecraft called Minecraft?

“Minecraft” pretty much sums up what you do in the game. “Mine” refers to digging up blocks, and “craft” refers to building things with those blocks.  

 

What’s the point of the game?

Actually, there is no ultimate goal in Minecraft. That’s part of its beauty. You have the freedom to do just about anything you want in it without having to complete any particular tasks.  

 

Is there any way to play with other people?

Yes. People have created servers that are entirely devoted to playing Minecraft. Several people (sometimes hundreds, depending on the server) can all play at the same time.  

So That’s Cool, But Why Is It So Popular?

That is actually a really hard question. It’s probably so popular because there are so many possibilities for it. As I said before, there is no particular goal or plot to the game (other than not dying). That makes it possible to do almost anything in the game. Another part of it is that you have to work hard to do things in Minecraft, so that makes creations on the game even more impressive, especially in survival mode. Also, it can be a very social game. If you get on a server, you will have to collaborate with other people to play.

That’s all, folks!

So, that’s Minecraft in a nutshell. As I said before, this is only a basic explanation of the game, so if you’re making plans to start a YouTube channel on Minecraft based on the info in this blog post, I’d recommend learning a bit more about the game. However, it should be enough information to help you at least somewhat understand what all the fuss is about.

Basic Theory for Home Content Filtering

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So I promised a good friend I’d get back on the blogging horse and finally cover this topic.  I must confess, Pooky and I were on a roll in blogging.  Then the holidays kicked in, and with it little flu germies ran rampant through the home like cloaked nerds at a Star Wars convention.  Let’s recap some of the key technologies that got us to this point:

IP Addresses

ipaddressSimply stated, any computer that wants to talk to another computer needs to use an IP Address.  An IP Address is the binary name for that computer.  Never forget the secret to the Internet: When you go to a website, you are actually looking at files on another computer somewhere in the world, which you accessed by its IP Address.

DNS

This was one of my favorite blog posts, the romantic fireside scene fills me with teh lulz.  That’s a fancy nerd way of saying it makes me lol.  Oh man, sorry, how about this – it milk were in my mouth, it would squirt out my nose.  DNS is done by some computers on the Internet that translate friendly names to IP Addresses.  If you type http://www.google.com into your web browser, your computer uses DNS to determine that Google has an IP Address 74.125.228.103.  Your computer then loads the website from that IP Address.  All that takes place within a few milliseconds – Pretty impressive.

Four Main Methods to Content Filteringcontent filtering

  1. At the client: content filtering software like K9 or Net Nanny is installed on the computer and allows everything that you have not specifically blocked.  This can cause lots of false positives when it blocks legitimate traffic.  For example, K9 loves to attack Minecraft traffic, causing no end of grief for my kids.  I’m not a fan of this method, I’ll explain why in more detail later on.
  2. At the proxy: a proxy server is a computer that stands for or represents another computer on the Internet.  On a computer network, you would connect to the proxy server and the proxy would connect to the Internet for you.  The proxy would pass on “good” traffic and drop “bad” traffic.  Most companies use this approach with a dedicated content filter appliance such as Websense.  We can get similar functionality out of our home router, for free, using key word blocking.
  3. At the gateway: using access lists (a list that determines whether or not you can access something), you can filter requests before they leave or return to your network.  This could be done on your router, assuming that functionality is built into your router.  I have a Verizon Fios router, which has this built in.  I also have a Netgear router, which also has this feature built in.  I’d wager that most home routers have this functionality – but when in doubt, google it.
  4. In the cloud: your computer attempts to connect to something out on the Internet (the cloud), and is routed through a proxy or guardian that determines whether or not the traffic comes back to you.  This would include using OpenDNS – you send your DNS requests (hey OpenDNS – what is the IP for google.com?) and if the website you want an IP for fits a category that you have designated to block, OpenDNS redirects you to a “this site has been blocked” page.

You could put all your eggs in one basket, then crash and burn if that one method fails.  I personally recommend combining at least two, if not three methods.  Each method has its own pros and cons, and ways to circumvent.  From my own experience, most companies utilize a proxy, and most home users utilize locally installed software.  I will say that I’m not a fan of the locally installed software.  You have to install filtering software on every single device, but software isn’t always available FOR every single device.  Do you have a web enabled television or video game console?  Good luck with blocking that.  Little Billy’s best friend Barry comes over to visit and connects his iPod to your wireless? He has free reign.  Little Suzie boots from a parasite drive, and can get anywhere on the Internet.

thumbdriveSorry, I should define that one – A parasite drive is a bootable thumb drive or CD/DVD that runs an Operating System on top of your existing hardware, like a deer tick latched onto a young buck.  It uses all your hardware while bypassing your locally installed Operating System – and without running any software you may have installed to filter content.  This sneaky tactic was used to great effect by Edward Snowden to avoid online detection by the government who desperately wants to hang him out to dry for leaking all their nasty monitoring secrets.

So anyhow, this is a short post about the theory behind home content filtering.  Next up – step by step directions on how to make it happen, starting with how to set up and tweak OpenDNS like a boss.

Our Family’s Favorite “Friendship Soup” Gets a Makeover! (Trim Healthy Mama, E Meal)

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Every year around Thanksgiving time our family makes Friendship Soup jars. Lots of soup jars. We give them as gifts, and we keep them on hand for easy, yummy winter meals.  And we ALWAYS have our Friendship Soup for Christmas dinner.

DSCN2458

Recently, I’ve been eating Trim-Healthy-Mama style and easing my family into this healthier way of eating. So this year when Thanksgiving time came and I started dreaming of soup jars, I worried for a minute that I might not be able to eat my beloved Friendship Soup.  I did not want to surrender this dear family tradition!

Fortunately, when I pulled out my old recipe, I discovered that I only had to tweak 4 of the ingredients to make it a marvelous E meal fit for any Trim Healthy family!  We did a trial run, and everyone in the family loved the new version just as much as the old!

The original recipe was a combination of several recipes for Friendship Soup Mix in a Jar that I had found online.  I have had wonderful responses to the old version over the past 10+ years and have been asked for the recipe many, many times.  So here I will share the revised THM E-version of the recipe (with the old-version ingredients listed in parentheses).

Friendship Soup

Ingredients:

  • 1/3 cup beef bouillon
  • 1/4 cup dried minced onion
  • 2 tsp. Italian seasoning
  • 1/2 cup dried split peas
  • 1/2 cup uncooked quinoa (1/2 cup uncooked alphabet pasta)
  • 1/4 cup barley
  • 1/2 cup dry lentils
  • 1/3 cup brown rice (1/3 cup white rice)
  • 1 cup uncooked Dreamfields rotini, or enough to finish filling the jar (1 cup any old high-carb pasta)

Directions:

  1. Layer ingredients in order in a 1-quart canning jar.  Using a funnel with about a 2-inch neck may make this easier to do.
  2. Attach a tag with the following information (you can print my pre-made tags here):

Friendship Soup Mix

Additional Ingredients:

  • 1 lb. ground turkey, 97% lean for a THM E-meal  (old version–ground beef)
  • 3 qts. water
  • 1 can (28 oz.) diced or crushed tomatoes, undrained

To prepare soup:

  • Carefully remove Dreamfields rotini pasta from top of jar and set aside.  In a large sauce pan or Dutch oven, brown turkey (or beef) and drain.  Add water, tomatoes and soup mix.  Bring to boil then reduce heat, cover and simmer 45 minutes.  Add reserved rotini pasta and simmer 10 minutes more.  Serves 16.

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Our children love helping out with the soup jar project, especially creating jars for their tutors at our Classical Conversations homeschool co-op.  I learned (after several years of big messes) to spread a clean sheet out on the kitchen floor and let everyone pitch in.  All the spilled ingredients land on the sheet.  Then when we are finished, we just gather up the four corners and shake the spilled ingredients outside for the backyard wildlife to enjoy! (And no, rice does not make birds explode.)

Taming Your Router with Style and Grace

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questionsSo I got a nice request for a post, though I do apologize for the delay in posting it.  The question:

I just read your password security blog and I was wondering…How do I change my router name/password to something other than admin/admin? I think it was something different at some point but the other day the router reset so now it’s back to admin/admin.

First off, thanks for the question.  It’s always a pleasure to know that:

  1. People actually read this blog
  2. My pitiful excuse for geek knowledge can be used to help others

That being said, I’ll dive right in.  This is actually a great question, and honestly this blog has been leading up to this exact moment and question for quite some time.  We’ve covered IP Addresses and how computers talk and all that fun stuff.  Remember, your home network is protected from the OUT THERE stuff on the Internet by a very important piece of equipment called the router.

hagrid

The Router: Your Virtual Gatekeeper & Digital Hagrid

As you recall, the Router allows you to go outside your little home castle and access other stuff on the Internet.  Web surfing, Skype, streaming music, Bittorrent (not that you would ever do that), and so on – all this and more goes through your router to get onto the Internet.  But your router can do much more than just pull up LOLCATS and Facebook.  It can also filter traffic to the Internet, if you know how.  But before we run a ten minute mile, we have to crawl to the fridge for a soda pop.  Ah that was refreshing, thanks.

 

router001First off, how do you find your router?  Well yeah – I mean you could go downstairs to the basement and point at the router with its gun metal gray shiny case and cute wireless antennas. But that’s not quite what I had in mind.  If you are running Windows 7, click on the Start button, and type CMD then Enter to get a Command Prompt.  XP and earlier, click Start, then select RUN, then type CMD followed by Enter.  Windows 8?  Good luck finding it.

Now from the command prompt, type IPCONFIG then press enter.  Your router is most likely the gateway you traverse to get out of your local network, named creatively enough as the DEFAULT GATEWAY.

router002

Now that you know what your router’s IP Address is, let’s connect to it using a web browser such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, or AOL Explorer.  *snicker* I said AOL…  In the address bar for the website you want to open, type that IP Address then press Enter.

router003

If all goes well, you’ll get a popup for a username and password.

router004

And now we get to the fun part – what is your router’s default username and password?  It really depends on your router.  If you have a Verizon FIOS router, it usually is written on the bottom of the router on a sticker.  If you have a Netgear or Linksys or similar commercial device, try one of the following:

admin with the password of admin
admin with no password
no username, with a password of admin
cisco with a password of cisco
administrator with no password
administrator with a password of password

One of these will most likely get you in.  If it doesn’t, try looking it up on Google.  For example, in Google type Linksys Default Password (assuming you have a Linksys, otherwise try the type of router you DO have) and see what you get.

router005

Once you get in, it should be fairly obvious how to change that password.  On my cute Netgear, there was a menu option to change it.  I highly recommend re-reading my blog post on password security, and creating a strong password.

 

 

Lock Down Your Wireless!

router006While you’re in the router, be sure to take a look around.  If it’s a wireless router, pay particular attention to your wireless settings.  I highly recommend locking down your wireless with a very strong wireless key.  If your wireless router is wide open (meaning there is no password) anyone could connect to it and do nefarious things.  Oh hey – and guess who the cops will come visit?  That’s right, you.  Lock your crap down tight.

Cheap and Easy Content Filtering

router008Another interesting feature of most home routers is this: Content Filtering.  Did you know you can block any web traffic that contains keywords?  I’m obviously not going to list every bad word here, but a very simple Google keyword search for “content filter keyword list” will give you a list of most (if not all) bad words you would want to block.  I then took these nasty words and variations and plugged them into my content filter.  I set my schedule to Always, and clicked Apply.  Instant content filter!

Who Are You?

router009Another feature built into most household routers is a listing of connected devices.  It can’t hurt to take a look at exactly what computers are connected to your router and are using your Internet.  If the router can figure out the device name, it will.  It will also list it by IP Address, and MAC Address.  If you don’t recognize some of the devices, you might want to make sure things are locked down tight – especially your wireless.  No freeloaders!

I hope this blog post was helpful to you.  As always, please feel free to reach out to me with your technical questions!

Germy Germs and Nordic Butt-Kicking Moses

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So the question you have, most likely, is where have Pooky and the Geek gone?

germsSimple answer.  It’s cold and flu season.  And I have approximately 27 children (they never stay still enough to get an accurate count).  So naturally everyone gets sick.  Our kids were raised right – they share.  So the past month has been a continuous procession of snot, vomit, coughs, sniffles, late nights with no sleep, and no sleep whatsoever.  And did I mention no sleep?

So I stopped in to drop a few lines and reassure you that indeed we are still alive.  We still blog, if only into our pillows at 3:27 AM while hallucinating about Nordic Butt-kicking Moses.

Uh What?

Yeah that’s right – Nordic Butt-kicking Moses.  See, tomorrow is Thursday.  And that means the kiddos load up into our vehicle and shuttle off to Harrisburg for Classical Conversations.  There, they are educated by the very best homeschool minds of our day and age.  They have to give a weekly presentation, and tomorrow the topic is Renaissance Art.  So my eleven-year old son latched onto the great work of art from Michelangelo Buonarroti – the statue of Moses.

Before you go about thinking that my children are into sipping tea with their pinkies facing out while arguing about opera, I’ll follow up with his criteria in choosing this particular piece of art:

Eleven-Year-Old Boy’s Criteria for Presentation-Worthy Renaissance Art

1. Can’t be naked:  this rules out a great deal of Renaissance art.  Sure, it’s art – but chubby naked people frolicking about in oil paintings is just plain creepy.

moseshorns2. Moses has horns.

Yeah I thought I’d lose you at that one, so I’ll say it again – Michelangelo’s statue of Moses has horns.

It turns out Michelangelo should have spent more time studying Greek and less time playing with nunchukas.  What, did you honestly think I would discuss Renaissance art without busting out the Turtles?  But I digress.  Back in the day, Mikey (that’s what his buds probably called him) used the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible, translated by Jerome from the Hebrew Masoretic texts.  And while our translations based off the Greek Septuagint would say that Moses’ face shone with light after he came down off Mount Sinai with the Ten Commandments, the Vulgate translation says he was “horned” with light.  So it wasn’t all that uncommon in that day to depict Moses as having horns.  I imagine it was difficult to sculpt horns of light emanating from his head, so he wound up looking like a satyr.

So anyhow, thanks to the insight of my son, I am now forever tainted in my mental image of Moses.  It does seem much more impressive that a great beast of a man stood before Pharaoh, bellowing out LET MY PEOPLE GO with his great Duck Dynasty beard spilling down over his ripped chest, spiky horns jutting from his brow.  Pharaoh probably wet his kilt.nordic moses

A Tale of Two Brothers

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ataleoftwobrothers

Today we’ll learn about two brothers: TCP and UDP.  Chances are, you have never heard of these guys.  Remember in a previous blog, we talked about how computers communicate with each other on a network: an IP Address (leaving off the other network protocols like Appletalk, IPX, and similar irrelevant inhabitants on the Isle of Misfit Protocols).  On your Windows computer, deep in the bowels of your network settings, it lists how your computer will talk to other computers.

tcpip002To see this yourself, click Start, search for NCPA.CPL, then press enter on your keyboard.  This will send you to the Network Control Panel Applet where all your cool Network stuff is set up.  Right click one of your Network adapters, and select Properties.  Now you can see all the protocols and what not that you actually are using to communicate with other computers.  Pretty hefty stuff, right?  And there, in all its glory, is our golden Wonka ticket: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4).  Select that bugger, and click Properties.

tcpip001Pretty unimpressive, eh?  Chances are, it’s set to get everything from DHCP.  That meaning that your computer yells at the top of its lungs like a fussy toddler at naptime “I WANT TO LOOK AT LOLCATS!!!!1111” and some other device on your network (most likely your virtual Hagrid router) will give your computer an IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, DNS servers, and other fun stuff we don’t really need to get into right now.  Your router is acting as a DHCP server – it hands out network information so computers can talk to each other.  It’s a rather kind thing to do.

So anyhow, we know all about IP Addresses, which use the IP protocol.  But what on earth is that other part?  TCP?  Eh?  What’s that?

Juggling for Fun and Profit

squirrelHow many of you can juggle several things at once?  Do you trip while trying to walk and chew gum?  Can you multitask?  I sometimes can, but often I…. SQUIRREL!

So your computer can obviously multitask, doing several things at once.  One way your computer accomplishes this is by using ports.

Let’s go back in time to an earlier blog post analogy about your home network being a castle, and the Virtual Hagrid router being the big strong gateway to the outside world.  Now let’s take that analogy a tad deeper: that big strong gateway has 65,535 little keyholes on it, each numbered from 1 to 65,535.  And let’s say that only specific keys fit in each keyhole.  You want to surf the web?  That picture of LOLCATS can only come back inside your castle in keyhole number 80.  In fact, all web surfing can ever only come in that keyhole.  You want to do a DNS lookup to determine that google.com is actually 74.125.228.70?  That name query can only come back into your castle through keyhole number 53.  And so on, and so forth.

keyholeNow I’ll geek out on you.  Those keyholes in your castle door are called ports.  And specific kinds of traffic (called packets) come in on certain ports.  They always come in on those specific ports, it’s a universal standard.  There is a group of geeks who determined in RFC 6335 that port 80 would henceforth and forevermore be dedicated for HTTP Web traffic.  Oh you’re fancy shmancy and use your computer for encrypted web surfing when you go to your bank’s website?  Well encrypted web traffic (HTTPS) rides port 443.  DNS name lookups?  That is port 53.  And the list goes on and on and on.

Now here is where it gets a smidge complicated: for each keyhole port, there are two possible keys, belonging to two brothers.  We’ll start with the first brother.

The Respectable Responsible Brother

happypacket

Our first brother is the Albus Dumbledore of the packet family.  We’ll call him TCP.  TCP seems to care an awful lot about his packets getting where they are supposed to go, in the correct order, and in a timely fashion.  If something doesn’t seem to be just right, TCP follows up to make sure it’s done.  His packets are delivered on the proper port number and he follows up to make sure they got there.  If they weren’t delivered on time, he sends them again and again until he receives word that they got there.  Sure the packets take a little longer as you have to reply to every single one that they were received, and have to wait for undelivered packets to be sent again.  But you are in good hands with the Albus Dumbledore of the packet world.

The Deadbeat Dunderheaded Brother

udp no care

Our second brother is the Aberforth Dumbledore of the packet family.  We’ll call him UDP.  UDP doesn’t give a flying left handed goat poo about whether or not you got his packets; he just sends them off and goes about his business once they are gone.  If you don’t get them, oh well.  You probably didn’t need them anyway and if you did need them, well tough.  If you did get the blue key packets, they came in quickly.  You didn’t even have to respond that they were delivered.  They just show up, or if they don’t, oh well.  That makes for a faster delivery, though there is no guarantee you actually get them.

So now let’s bring it together – we have a bunch of ports on the castle door, and certain kinds of packets can only come into certain numbered ports.  TCP packets come into specific port numbers, and the sender follows up to make sure you got them before sending you more.  UDP packets come into specific port numbers, and they either show up or they don’t.

ackTo use a big fancy twelve-dollar nerd word, TCP packets are considered connection-oriented, meaning there is a guaranteed receipt and the sender retransmits them if you don’t acknowledge their receipt.  Behind the scenes, there are funny words like “SYN” and “ACK” that instantly conjure up images of Bill the Cat.  It’s pretty comical until you realize you’re talking about packet data, then you come back to earth and feel sad inside that you are such a nerd.

The twelve-dollar nerd word for UDP packets is connection-less, meaning there is no verification of receipt.  They either show up or they don’t.  As such, they are faster packets without all the verifications.

Why On Earth Do We Even Care?

Let’s keep in mind that our ultimate goal is security and content filtering, so let’s boil this one down a bit.  It’s simplistic to say that to gain access to our castle, one must make it across the moat and through the front gate.  The reality is, that front gate has its own security, and only certain kinds of traffic can come in certain little holes in the gate.  If you come up the front door and say you are Web Traffic on TCP Port 80, you MUST come in that specific port.  This is to our advantage – we can then watch that port very closely, and monitor it more severely than we would other ports.  We could even just block up that port so nothing gets through.  And wait for it:

keysKey Concept

We can instruct our Virtual Hagrid Router to only allow certain traffic in on that port, while blocking other traffic that we don’t want.

I cannot understate the importance of this concept.  We’ll go much deeper into this soon, I promise.  But let’s get practical on this – we could only allow Web Traffic (TCP Port 80) from certain websites that we determine as “good”.  And we can then say that all other traffic gets tossed into the moat where nasty green crocodiles gnash their pointy teeth.

Or let’s use another fancy term we covered in a previous blog: we could only allow UDP port 23 DNS traffic back into our castle if it comes from a specific DNS server like OpenDNS, and all other DNS traffic winds up in the moat.

opendns

OK, Professor Plum, what is OpenDNS?

Ah glad you asked.  OpenDNS is a free service that allows the filtering of DNS traffic based on content.  You could use OpenDNS to only allow DNS lookups that are considered “safe” while dropping any traffic determined “adult” or “gambling” or “hacking” (though why would we want to!?).  OpenDNS is one of our main ninja weapons to keep our homes safe.  And on that cliffhanger of a concept, I’ll close.  Coming soon: more on OpenDNS, as well as how to play around in your Router without blowing crap up.

Uncrunchy Pooky’s Home Remedy for Sinus Infection

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Please don’t EVER substitute my advice for a doctor’s care.  I merely dabble in things named “natural.”  I would definitely classify myself as “unnatural,” completely “uncrunchy.” Until recently, I have eaten a severely processed diet rich in high fructose corn syrup, GMOs, and second-hand hormones.   I take antibiotics when the doctor tells me to, Tylenol for headaches, and Ibuprofen for aches and pains. All 5 of my children have been born “unnaturally” by  c-sections. However, I have recently delved into the world of essential oils (LOVE), home remedies, and healthier eating (Trim Healthy Mama). But, PLEASE, don’t consider me a health adviser. I’m simply sharing an anecdote here.  Take it or leave it.

Last week I had an abscess in my sinus which drained on its own, thankfully, but which then somehow morphed into cellulitis on my nose.  My nose swelled up to twice its normal size and was red and very painful.  Of course, this happened on the weekend (as most major illnesses do in our home), so I had to go to urgent care.  The doctor prescribed the antibiotic Augmentin, but said if I experienced any fever or headache I should go immediately to the ER for intravenous antibiotics. Apparently, cellulitis on the face is nothing to mess around with and can even be fatal if let go.  Who knew?

On Monday I promptly went to visit my regular doctor.  The cellulitis was nearly gone (yay!), but I had developed a raging sinus infection.  My doctor said the current antibiotic would most likely not cure this infection–especially since I had already been taking it for 2 and a half days and the infection was getting worse.  But she did not want to put me on steroids immediately since I am exclusively breastfeeding my 7-month old.

I told her I’d like to try to get rid of it naturally.  She said if it does not get better by the end of this week, I’ll have to do the steroids.  Ugh.

So I spent the entire day yesterday furiously attacking my sinus infection with nature.

First,  I used a saline nasal rinse about every two hours.  Nasal flushes have changed my life the past few years.  There is nothing better for sinus congestion, post nasal drip, or allergies.  The sinus rinse (even better than the neti pot) blasts out all the nasty nasal mucous and supposedly keeps snot from stagnating in your sinuses and growing more lovely bacteria.  I use the store-bought saline packets, but because of the severity of this sinus infection, I found I could use only half a packet per bottle. The full packet burned like fire and felt like someone dipped my brain in a vat of acid.

Second, I made a tasty little elixir to aid in the healing process.  Here’s my recipe:

  • 6 oz. of hot water
  • 1 Tbsp. of Bragg’s Apple Cider Vinegar  — This particular brand of vinegar contains the “mother.”  I don’t know why vinegar mother is important, but I’ve heard it is.  It’s on my to-Google-sometime-soon list.
  • 1 to 2 drops of  OnGuard essential oil (a blend of wild orange peel, clove bud, cinnamon bark, eucalyptus, and rosemary–my kids always say this oil smells like Christmas). OnGuard is supposed to be anti-bacterial and anti-viral.
  • 2 packets of Stevia

This little concoction smells and tastes delightful, like spiced apple cider.  Yum.  It does have a slight vinegary taste, but barely noticeable.  It is sooooo much more yummy than trying to choke down a plain glass of water with vinegar and/or eating a drop of essential oil straight and/or trying to drink Thera-Flu (nasty and unnatural stuff, but effective).  In fact, I think I’ll name my drink TERRA-Flu since it uses essential oil.  Clever, huh?

I drank probably 6 or 7 mugs of this throughout the day yesterday, as well as regularly using the nasal flush.  And guess what?  I feel soooooo much better today.  The throbbing, burning sinus pain is all gone!  My gums had also been throbbing and aching, from the sinus infection.  That’s all gone, too!  I am continuing this regimen today since I still have some stuffiness and a little scratchy throat. But all in all–MUCH better.

I’m thinking I won’t need steroids!  Praise the Lord!  Praise him that he may have, in his infinite mercy, reached down and healed me. Or, praise him that he created some “natural” things that may have helped heal me.  Or, if I do end up on steroids after all, praise him that he gifted mankind with intelligence and science to help heal ourselves “unnaturally.”  Or, to take it even further…if I end up dead from all these infections, praise him for sending Jesus to die and rise again and save me from my sins so that I will spend eternity with him in heaven with never another infection to be had!